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Ebola: The deadly virus strikes again!

Some important facts about Ebola Virus infection:

Dr Sampurna Roy MD            

 

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   Fruit bats are natural reservoir for ebolaviruses.

 

                                                         

                                       

Gorillas, chimpanzees, and duikers are sensitive to ebola virus and are sources of human infection.

 

 

             

 

 

 

 

 

Infection is transmitted to human from contact with infected bats and wild animals and consumption of the raw meat of infected animals.

Human-to-human transmission of the Ebola virus is primarily associated to close and prolonged contact with an infected person or indirect contact with blood and body fluids. (Example: inoculation from contaminated syringes and needles).

 

 

 

                                          

Clinically,  Ebola virus disease has a sudden onset. Incubation period is between 2 to 21 days.

Early stage - Headache, fever, muscle pain and sore throat .

                                                           

                                                                  

Advanced stage - There is bleeding from eyes, nose, mouth and severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

Frank blood is present in the stool together with haematemesis.

Liver is damaged and kidney function is impaired. 

 

                                

     Liver                          Spleen             Lymph nodes      Kidney and adrenals

Liver, spleen, lymph nodes, kidney and the adrenals are all affected.

Lymph node infection of macrophages and dendritic cells cause depletion of lymphocytes and impairment of the host immune response.

In the liver there is necrosis of the hepatocytes.

There is dysfuntion and decreased production of clotting factor.

In the adrenal gland the necrosis of the adrenal cortical cells leads to impaired synthesis of steroids.

Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a prominent manifestation of Ebola virus infection.

Death occurs due to multiple organ failure and tissue death.

 

  Prevention and control of the disease.

                 

            

                                 

             

- Infected patients should be strictly isolated to prevent spread of ebolavirus infection.

- Close physical contact with Ebola patients should be avoided.

- Regular hand washing after visiting patients in hospital,as well as after taking care of patients at home.

- Meat should be thoroughly cooked before eating.

- Prevention of needle stick and injuries from other sharp instruments.

 

                                                 

 

All health-care workers caring for patients with Ebola virus infection and laboratory workers handling samples from infected patients should take special precautions. (Further information: WHO factsheets).

 

Visit: Ebola Virus Disease

 

 

According to WHO, Ebola Death Toll has passed 4,500, including 236 Health Workers. October 17th. 2015.

For further information: Pathology of Ebola Virus Disease

 

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Dr  Sampurna Roy  MD

Consultant Histopathologist (Kolkata - India)

 

 


 

 

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