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A short photo essay will explain the disease of this young lady:

Dr Sampurna Roy  MD     


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Patient complained of fever, chills, cough, headache, joint pain, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting and skin rash. She was on immunosuppressive therapy.

She is a world traveller. There are many birds and bats in her locality.

What happened to her?




Fungal hyphae and spores are present in the soil. Some gets into the soil from bird and bat droppings.





                          Infectious Fungal Spores





When Infectious Fungal Spores are inhaled,the spores cause Primary Pulmonary Infection. 

In "Disseminated Disease" the infection spread to other organs of the body from the lungs through bloodstream.

Examples of Disseminated Fungal Infections:



                  Meningitis              Bone





In Coccidioidomycosis primary infection of lung may disseminate widely.The skin, meninges, and bone are common target.

Visit: Pathology of Coccidioidomycosis






           Bone marrow             Liver 



            Spleen                   Lymph nodes



In Histoplasmosis primary infection is in the lung.

In susceptible patients, the fungus disseminates to target organs liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow.

Tongue, mucous membranes of mouth and adrenals are also involved.

Visit:  Pathology of Histoplasmosis




                Kidney          Bone      Spleen



Brain - (Brain abscess ; Meningitis)





In Blastomycosis the primary infection of the lung disseminates widely. The principle targets are the brain, meninges, skin, spleen, bone and kidney.

Visit: Pathology of Blastomycosis







In Cryptococcosis the primary infection of the lung disseminates to the meninges.

Visit: Pathology of Cryptococcosis


Diagnosis:   Disseminated Fungal Infection


Fungi grow naturally in soil, air, in the feces of bird and bats and produce spores.

Fungi are commonly dispersed in air.

The air that we breath contains spores of many fungi. There are more than 100,000 known species of fungi, only a few invade and destroy human tissue.

Of these most are "opportunists".

That is they infect only those with impaired immune mechanism.

Although cell-mediated system effectively protect against fungi, humoral antibodies play almost no role in protection.

Defective neutrophils, or the inhibition of the action of neutrophils or histiocytes causes infection.

Corticosteroid administration, other immunosuppressive therapy and congenital or acquired T-cell deficiencies all predispose to mycotic infections.


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Dr  Sampurna Roy  MD

Consultant Histopathologist (Kolkata - India)






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